Established in 2008
Evolving young minds to serve society
Mon - Sat : 8:00 - 17:30
Established in 2008
Evolving young minds to serve society


The Department of Mechanical Engineering was established in the year of 2012 with an intake of60 and later increased to 120. We provide the quality technical education to our students. The department motivates the students to participate in the technical and non technical events. Mechanical Engineering is a greener branch of engineering which enables to learn about the manufacturing processes, machineries, automobiles  and other allied processes. The students can choose the career in core companies related to Manufacturing and  Design.

Mechanical Engineering Department ventures to be identified one among all, for imparting quality education and research, leading to well qualified engineers who are technically developed and have entrepreneurship skills to meet the demands  of the Indian industries as well as society.

1. To impart highest quality of education through traditional as well as advanced teaching
2. To provide enthusiastic and collaborative environment to students, faculties to analyze, apply and disperse knowledge of their respective field.
3. To create scientific, technological & cultural awareness amongst students and public at
4. To enhance the technical skills of faculties and students through industry institute

  1. PO1- Basic and Discipline specific knowledge: Apply knowledge of basic mathematics, science and engineering fundamentals and engineering specialization to solve the engineering problems.

    PO2- Problem analysis: Identify and analyze well-defined engineering problems using codified standard methods.

    PO3- Design/ development of solutions: Design solutions for well-defined technical problems and assist with the design of systems, components or processes to meet specified needs.

    PO4- Engineering Tools, Experimentation and Testing: Apply modern engineering tools and appropriate technique to conduct standard tests and measurements.

    PO5- Engineering practices for society, sustainability and environment: Apply appropriate technology in context of society, sustainability, environment and ethical practices.

    PO6- Project Management: Use engineering management principles individually, as a team member or a leader to manage projects and effectively communicate about well defined engineering activities.

    PO7- Life-long learning: Ability to analyse individual needs and engage in updating in the context of technological changes.

The students having diploma in mechanical engineering will:

PEO1 – Obtain successful employment in mechanical and allied industries

PEO2- Be eligible for higher studies and lifelong learning

PEO3- Become an entrepreneur

PEO4 – Become responsible citizens and professionals.

PSO1. Perform in design sector by using the knowledge of Strengths of Materials, Machine Design, Hydraulics and Hydraulics Machines and Theory of Machines, etc.

PSO2. Apply the fundamentals of Applied Thermodynamics, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning, Heat and Mass Transfer etc. in Power and Energy sector.

PSO3. Understand the application of Material Science, Manufacturing Science, and Computer Aided Manufacturing etc. in manufacturing field.

PSO4. Develop their managerial and Ethical skills by grasping the knowledge of Industrial Psychology, Engineering Economics, Industrial Management, Operations Research, Entrepreneurship Development and Human values and Professional Ethics.

Name:  Mr. Dheeraj Kumar
Designation: Principal  
Qualification:M. TECH, B. TECH
Date of Joining:31st July’19
Total Experience: 11 years
Area of Interest:Production Technology, Theory of Machines, Composite Materials

Name: Mr. Daya Shnkar Pandey
Designation: Assistant Professor
Qualification:M.Tech, B.Tech (AMIE), Diploma
Date of Joining: 3rd Sep’14
Total Experience:52 years
Area of Interest:Production Engg.

Name:Mr. Sandeep Gupta
Qualification:B. TECH,M. Tech.(Purs.)
Date of Joining:23rd Nov’20
Total Experience:08 years &
04 Months

Area of Interest:Applied Mechanics, Mechanics of Solid, Thermal Engineering

Name: Mr. Shivendra Mohan
Designation: Lecturer
Qualification:B. TECH. 

Date of Joining: 23rd March’17
Total Experience:03 years
Area of Interest:Fluid Mechanics

Name:Mr. Ashutosh Mishra
Designation:Assistant Professor
Qualification:B. TECH
Date of Joining:19th Sep’16
Total Experience:08 years
Area of Interest:Thermodynamics, HMT

Name: Mr. Sudarshan Kandpal
Designation: Lecturer
Qualification:B. TECH. 

Date of Joining:5th Feb’18
Total Experience:07 years
Area of Interest:Applied Mechanics, Mechanics of Solid, Metrology and measurement

Name:Mr. Deepak Singh
Designation: Professor
Qualification:B. TECH
Date of Joining:28th March’18
Total Experience:07 years
Area of Interest:Machine Design, Thermodynamics, Mechanics




Session: 2020-21
Odd Semester
Sr. No. Course Code (self designed) Name of subject Course Outcomes
1. ME 101 Engineering Drawing – I
  1. Identify and use of different grades of pencils and other drafting instruments which are used in engineering field
  2. Draw free hand sketches of various kinds of objects.
  3. Utilize various types of lines used in engineering drawing.
  4. Read and apply different dimensioning methods on drawing of objects.
  5. Use different types of scales and their utilization in reading and reproducing drawings of objects and maps.
  6. Draw 2 – dimensional view of different objects viewed from different angles (orthographic views)
  7. Draw and interpret complete inner hidden details of an object which are otherwise not visible in normal view
  8. To make projections of Solid
  9. Generate isometric (3D) drawing from different 2D (orthographic) views/sketches
  10. Identify conventions for different engineering materials, symbols, sections of regular objects and general fittings used in Civil and Electrical household appliances
  11. Use basic commands of AutoCAD.
2. ME 102 General Workshop Practice-I
  1. Identify tools and equipment used and their respective functions.
  2. Identify different types of materials and their basic properties.
  3. Use and take measurements with the help of basic measuring tools/equipment.
  4. Select proper tools for a particular operation.
  5. Select materials, tools, and sequence of operations to make a job as per given specification/drawing.
  6. Prepare simple jobs independently and inspect the same.
  7. Follow safety procedures and precautionary measures.
  8. Use safety equipment and Personal Protection Equipment.
3. ME 301 Engineering Materials
  1. Distinguish between metals and non metals and ferrous and non ferrous materials.
  2. Explain the arrangement of atoms in various crystals.
  3. Carryout various heat treatment processes.
  4. Analyze microstructure and changes in microstructure due to heat treatment.
  5. Classify various types of plastics and rubber.
  6. Explain properties and applications of composites, ceramics and smart materials.
  7. Select suitable material to be used for various engineering applications.
  8. Perform destructive and non-destructive testing of materials.
4. ME 302 Mechanics of Solids
  1. Interpret various concepts and terms related to strength of materials.
  2. Calculate stresses in bars of various cross-sections.
  3. Calculate energy stored by materials subjected to axial loads.
  4. Calculate moment of inertia of different sections.
  5. Interpret the concept of bending and torsion and calculate stresses on different section of materials.
  6. Draw and calculate shear force and bending moment diagrams of beam under given loading.
  7. Calculate stresses in thin cylindrical shells.
  8. Determine the diameter of a shaft under combined bending and torsion.
  9. Calculate critical axial loads on column under different end constraints.
5. ME 303 Thermal Engineering
  1. Apply thermodynamic laws.
  2. Solve basic problems of gas equation using perfect gas laws.
  3. Determine enthalpy, specific heat capacity and p-v-t surface of an ideal and real gas.
  4. Explain the working, construction and applications of steam boilers and steam generators.
  5. Explain the functions and uses of air compressors.
  6. Interpret different modes of heat transfer.
  7. Explain the working of IC engine.
  8. Assist in testing an IC engine.
  9. Explain the functioning of steam turbine, gas turbine and jet propulsion.
6. ME 304 Computer Aided Drafting and 3D Modelling
  1. Know the advantages of using CAD in comparison with conventional method.
  2. Draw and interpret CAD drawings using drawing, editing and viewing in CAD software.
  3. Create easy and complex solids and assemblies using various tools in Solid works software.
  4. Can understand exploded views and assembled views
7. ME 305 Workshop Technology
  1. Fabricate welding joints using gas welding arc welding, TIG and MIG welding of mild steel and stainless steel materials.
  2. Select suitable (most appropriate) process electrodes, various parameters of process for given job.
  3. Explain principle of operations of modern welding processes.
  4. Inspect various welding joints and castings.
  5. Prepare pattern for given job.
  6. Select material and type of patterns, cores.
  7. Prepare sand moulds manually and on machine.
  8. Select type of moulding sand, adhesives, compact, strength and parameters of sand for given job.
  9. Cast a mould.
  10. Identify a suitable furnace, alloying elements.
  11. Carry out deburring of castings.
  12. Test the properties of moulding sand (permeability, Strength, refractoriness,
Adhesiveness, cohesiveness).
8. ME 501 Theory of Machines
  1. Explain working of different types of mechanisms and draw their inversion.
  2. Solve problems on power transmission.
  3. Determine ratio of driving tension for flat and V-belt drive.
  4. Identify various types of gears and their applications.
  5. Construct turning moment diagram of flywheel for different types of engine.
  6. Construct Cam Profile.
  7. Calculate balancing of rotating mass and its position.
  8. Identify different type of vibrations, their causes, harmful effect and remedies.
9. ME 502 Machine Design
  1. Explain the terms related to design.
  2. Understand Man- machine relationship.
  3. Use codes and standards for designing a component.
  4. Select material for designing a component.
  5. Interpret the various causes of design failures.
  6. Design shaft on the basis of strength and rigidity.
  7. Design various machine elements (key, joint, flange coupling and screwed joints)
10. ME 503 Production Technology
  1. Perform turning, step turning, taper turning, threading and knurling operation on lathe machine.
  2. Re-sharpen/grind single point tool.
  3. Select material and tool geometry for cutting tools on lathe.
  4. Explain uses of lathe accessories and different types of lathes.
  5. Perform drilling, reaming, counter boring, counter sinking and tapping operations on drilling machine.
  6. Explain the nomenclature of a drill and milling cutter.
  7. Describe the features of various types of milling machines.
  8. Use milling machine accessories and attachments.
  9. Perform milling machine operations on vertical and horizontal milling machine.
  10. Perform keyway cutting and angular/step surface shaping on shaper.
  11. Explain geometry of single point cutting tool, various types of lathe tools and tool materials.
  12. Explain boring operation, features of boring machine and boring tool.
  13. Explain the features of locating devices, clamping devices, jigs and fixtures.
  14. Select cutting fluid for different materials and operations.
  15. Describe the features of various types of broaching machines.
  16. Operate tool and cutter grinder.
  17. Operate cylindrical grinder, surface grinder, and internal grinder.
  18. Explain the working and use of modern machining methods.
11. ME 504 Production Management
  1. Solve planning, scheduling and sequencing problems for shop floor.
  2. Interpret different kinds of production systems.
  3. Prepare break-even analysis and Gantt chart.
  4. Explain the importance of inspection.
  5. Prepare various control charts.
  6. Apply different techniques to improve quality of products and processes.
  7. Carryout estimating and costing of production cost.
  8. Explain the objective, importance and types of maintenance.
  9. Explain the salient features of labor legislation Acts.
12. ME 505 Automobile Engineering
  1. Explain the functions of different chassis components and drive types.
  2. Explain the working of transmission system.
  3. Explain the working principle of steering system.
  4. Carry out routine servicing of brake system and bleeding of hydraulic brakes.
  5. Explain the function and types of suspension systems.
  6. Carry out testing and charging of lead-acid battery.
  7. Interpret Bharat norms of exhaust emissions.
Session: 2020-21
Even Semester
Sr. No. Course Code (self designed) Name of subject Course Outcomes
1. ME 201 Engineering Drawing -II
  1. Draw and learn different types of wooden joints used in furniture.
  2. Draw the assembly from part details of objects.
  3. Identify and draw different types of screw threads used in various machines and assemblies as per domestic and international standards.
  4. Draw different types of nuts, bolts and washers.
  5. Draw various locking devices and foundation bolts.
  6. Draw different section of various types of keys and cotter joints.
  7. Draw various riveted joints.
  8. Draw various types of couplings used in power transmission.
  9. Prepare drawing of given joints/couplings using AutoCAD
2. ME 202 General Workshop Practice-II
  1. Identify tools and equipment used and their respective functions.
  2. Identify different types of materials and their basic properties.
  3. Use and take measurements with the help of basic measuring tools/equipment.
  4. Select proper tools for a particular operation.
  5. Select materials, tools, and sequence of operations to make a job as per given specification/drawing.
  6. Prepare simple jobs independently and inspect the same.
  7. Follow safety procedures and precautionary measures.
  8. Use safety equipment and Personal Protection Equipment.
3. ME 203 Computer Aided Drawing
  1. Know the advantages of using CAD in comparison with conventional method.
  2. Draw and interpret CAD drawings using drawing, editing and viewing in CAD software.
  3. Create 2D plans of building
  4. Create 3 D views from given 2D plans
4. ME 204 Applied Mechanics
  1. Interpret various types of units and their conversion from one to another.
  2. Analyze different types of forces acting on a body and draw free body diagrams.
  3. Determine the resultant of coplanar concurrent forces.
  4. Calculate the co-efficient of friction for different types of surfaces.
  5. Calculate the least force required to maintain equilibrium on an inclined plane.
  6. Determine the centroid/centre of gravity of plain and composite laminar and solid bodies.
  7. Determine velocity ratio, mechanical advantage and efficiency of simple machines
ME 401 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
  1. Explain the working and construction features of refrigeration and air conditioning systems
  2. Draw and interpret various refrigeration cycles.
  3. Make basic calculation of psychometric properties and processes.
  4. Calculate heating and cooling load requirements of a room.
  5. Explain latest developments in the field of refrigeration and air conditioning.
  6. Calculate the properties of air by using psychometric chart.
  7. Detect faults in an air-conditioner/refrigerator.
  8. Carry out charging of air conditioner.
ME 402 Hydraulics and Pneumatics
  1. Explain fluid properties, their units and conversion.
  2. Measure different types of pressures.
  3. Maintain different types of pressure gauges.
  4. Calculate flow and discharge of various liquids.
  5. Apply Bernoulli’s theorem for calculating pipe diameter and height of pipe from ground.
  6. Calculate pipe friction and losses in pipelines.
  7. Specify hydraulic machines for different applications.
  8. Apply Pascal’s law in practical applications.
  9. Explain the functions of various components used in hydraulic and pneumatic system.
  10. Maintain hydraulic and pneumatic system.
ME 403 Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing
  1. Know about Computer aided design and manufacturing.
  2. Know the process of 2D & 3D transformations
  3. Know the method of viewing objects in 3D space.
  4. Know about CNC operations for turning and milling.
  5. Understand about tool path generation and verification.
  6. Know about flexible manufacturing system.
  7. Know about Rapid Prototype additive manufacturing
  8. Know about robotics.
ME 404 Energy Conservation
  1. Define principles and objectives of energy management and energy audit.
  2. Understand Energy Conservation Act 2001 and its features.
  3. Understand various forms & elements of energy.
  4. Identify electrical and thermal utilities. Understand their basic principle of operation and assess performance of various equipments.
  5. Identify areas of energy conservation and adopt conservation methods in various systems.
  6. Evaluate the techno economic feasibility of the energy conservation technique adopted.
ME 601 Industrial Engineering
  1. Use industrial engineering concepts to improve productivity
  2. Use resources optimally and economically.
  3. Apply work study techniques for improving production
  4. Explain various incentive plans
  5. Maintain inventory optimally and classify different types of inventory
  6. Take preventive measures to avoid accidents use of safety device.
ME 602 Metrology and Measuring Instruments
  1. Use vernier calliper, micrometer, and Height gauge for linear internal and external measurement.
  2. Use bore gauge, radius gauge, taper gauge, plug gauge, ring gauge, snap gauge for measurements.
  3. Use bevel protector, sine bar, slip gauge, dial indictor, angle deckor, poppy dial for angular measurements.
  4. Measure spur gear characteristics using gear tooth vernier, outside diameter over dovel pins.
  5. Use tool maker’s microscope.
  6. Measure surface roughness parameters.
  7. Use profile projector, auto collimeter, angle deckor.
  8. Select and measure variables using electrical and electronics comparators and measuring instrument, sensors, transducers.
  9. Select and use non destructive testing methods.
  10. Explain the use of coordinate measuring machine.
  11. Use the concept of limits, fits and tolerance in assembly of components
ME 603 CNC Machines and Automation
  1. Explain the construction and tooling of CNC machine.
  2. Prepare simple part programme for different operations.
  3. Operate a CNC lathe.
  4. Operate a CNC milling machine.
  5. Diagnose common problems in CNC machines.
  6. Explain the trends in the field of automation.
ME 604 Tool Engineering
  1. List various properties of cutting tools.
  2. Explain the geometry of cutting tools.
  3. Explain the principles of location.
  4. Describe the functions of various locating devices.
  5. Explain the working of various types of clamps.
  6. Explain the functioning of various types of drilling jigs.
  7. Discuss features of various types of fixtures

Major Laboratories:

Sr. No.

Name of Lab

Name of Officer-Incharge

Major Equipments

List of Experiment


Applied Mechanics

Mr.Sudarshan Kandpal & Mr. Deepak Singh

1. Simply supported beam Apparatus

2. Jib Crane friction Apparatus, 

3. Screw jack torsion Apparatus, 

4. Worm & worm wheel, 

5. Law of prallelogram Apparatus, 

6. Combined coil & belt friction Apparatus.

1. Verification of the polygon law of forces using gravesend apparatus.

2. To verify the forces in different members of jib crane.

3. To verify the reaction at the supports of a simply supported beam.

4. To find the mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and efficiency in case of an inclined plane.

5. To find the mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and efficiency of a screw jack.

6. To find the mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and efficiency of worm and worm wheel.

7. To find mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and efficiency of single purchase crab.

8. To find out center of gravity of regular lamina.

9. To find out center of gravity of irregular lamina.

10. To determine coefficient of friction between three pairs of given surface.


General Workshop Practice 

Mr. Ashendra Singh

1. Carpentry Shop

2. Painting and Polishing Shop

3. Smithy Shop

4. Plumbing Shop

5. Fitting Shop

6. Sheet Metal Shop

7. Welding Shop

8. Foundry Shop

9. Machine Shop

1. Carpentry Shop

2. Painting and Polishing Shop

3. Electrical Shop

4. Smithy Shop

5.Plumbing Shop

6.Fitting Shop

7. Sheet Metal Shop

8. Welding Shop

9. Foundry Shop

10. Machine Shop


Thermal Engineering

Mr. Shivendra Mohan

1. Model of boilers, 2. Air compressor, 3.dynamometer, 

4. model of IC engines,

1. Demonstration of mountings and accessories on a boiler.

2. Demonstrate the working of air compressor.

3.Demonstration of heat transfer through conduction, convection and Radiation

4. Study of working of high-pressure boiler

5. Study the working of Lancashire boiler and Nestler boiler

6. Determination of BHP by dynamometer.

7. Morse test on multi-cylinder petrol engine.

8. Study and Sketch of cut section of 2-stroke and 4-stroke engines.

9. To determine dry fraction of steam by throttling and separating calorimeter.


Mechanics Of Solids

Mr.Sudarshan Kandpal

1. U.T.M., 

2. Rockwell Hardness, 

3. Brinell Hardness, 4. Izod’s test and
Charpy test, 

5. Torsion apparatus 

1. To find the sheer force at a given section of simply supported beam for different loading.

2. To find the value of ‘E’ for a steel beam by method of deflection for different loads.

3. To determine the Max-Fiber stress in X-section of simply supported beam with concentrated loads and to find the neutral axis of the section.

4. To determine the ultimate tensile strength, its modulus of Elasticity, stress at yield point,

Elongation and contraction in X-sectional area of the specimen by U.T.M. through necking phenomenon.

5. To determine the ultimate crushing strength of materials like steel and copper and compare their strength.

6. To determine Rockwell Hardness No. and Brinell Hardness No. of a sample.

7. To estimate the Shock Resistance of different qualities of materials by Izod’s test and Charpy test.

8. To determine the bending moment at a given section of a simply supported beam for different loading.

9. To determine the various parameters of helical coil spring.

10. To determine the angle of twist for a given torque by torsion apparatus and to plot a graph between torque and angle of twist.


Engineering Material

Mr.Deepak Singh

1. Polishing apparatus, 

2. metallurgical microscope, 

1. Use of diamond polishing apparatus.

2. To perform following heat treatment process on materials of known carbon percentage

and checking the change in the properties

a) Annealing

b) Normalising

c) Care hardening

3. Preparation of specimens and study of micro structure of given metals and alloys on

metallurgical microscope

a) Brass

b) Bronze

c) Grey Cast Iron

d) Low Carbon Steel

e) High Carbon Steel

f) High Speed Steel

4. To prepare specimen for microscope examination for polishing

5. To determine composition of alloy steel by steeloscope


Hydraulics and Pneumatics

Mr.Shivendra Mohan

1. Impeller & Francis turbine, 

2. Impact of Jet, 

3. Centrifugal & Reciprocating pump, 4. Hydraulics Ram, 5. Orifice,

6. Bend & venturimeter, 

7. Friction apparatus, 

8. Reynolds no., 

9. Pitot static tube, 10. Orifice & mouth piece, 

11. Wind tunnel.

1. Measurement of pressure head by employing.

i) Piezometer tube

ii) Single and double column manometer

2. To find out the value of coefficient of discharge for a venturimeter.

3. Measurement of flow by using venturimeter.

4. Verification of Bernoulli’s theorem.

5. To find coefficient of friction for a pipe (Darcy’s friction).

6. To study hydraulic circuit of an automobile brake and hydraulic ram.

7. Study the working of a Pelton wheel and Francis turbine.


Refrigeration and Air Condition

Mr. Sandeep Gupta

1. Demonstration of Window & split AC, 2. Refrigeration rig.

1. Demonstration of various refrigeration tools and equipment.

2. Practice in cutting, bending, flaring, swaging and brazing of tubes.

3. Study of thermostatic switch, LP/HP cut out overload protector filters, strainers and filter driers.

4. Identify various parts of a refrigerator and window air conditioner.

5. To find COP of Refrigeration system

6. To measure air flow using anemometer.

7. Charging of a refrigerator/ air conditioner.

8. To detect faults in a refrigerator/ air conditioner

9. Visit to an ice plant or cold storage plant. or central air conditioning plant.

10. Demonstration and working of window type air-conditioner.

11. Demonstration and working of split type air-conditioner.


Environment Studies

Dr. Shweta Srivastava

1. PH Meter, 

2. Turbodity Meter, 3. T.D.S. Meter, 

4. Noise Meter, 

5. Conductivity, 

6. B.O.D. Teat, 

7. C.O.D. Tear, 

8. B.O.D. Incubator 

1. Determination of pH of drinking water

2. Determination of TDS in drinking water

3. Determination of TSS in drinking water

4. Determination of hardness in drinking water

5. Determination of oil & grease in drinking water

6. Determination of alkalinity in drinking water

7. Determination of acidity in drinking water

8. Determination of organic/inorganic solid in drinking water

9. Determination of pH of soil

10. Determination of N&P (Nitrogen & Phosphorus) of soil

11. To measure the noise level in classroom and industry.

12. To segregate the various types of solid waste in a locality.

13. To study the waste management plan of different solid waste

14. To study the effect of melting of floating ice in water due to global warming


Metrology & Measuring Instrument 

Mr.Daya Shankar Pandey

1. Vernier Calliper, 2. Micrometer, 

3. Sine Bar, 

4. Vernier Height Gauge, 

5. feeler gauge, 

6. wire gauge, 

7. radius gauge and fillet gauges, 

8. Auto-Collimator, 9. Dial Indicator, 

10. Bevel Protector, 11. tool maker’s microscope 

1. Internal and external measurements with vernier calliper and micrometer

2. Measurement of linear dimensions with height gauge and depth gauge.

3. Measurement of flatness, concentricity with dial indicator

4. Use of feeler gauge, wire gauge, radius gauge and fillet gauges for checking of standard parameters.

5. Use of plain plug and ring gauge, taper plug and ring gauge, thread plug and ring gauge and snap gauges.

6. Measurement of Angle using;

i) Cylindrical rollers and spherical balls and slip gauges

ii) Bevel protector

iii) Sine Bar/Sine Table, Slip Gauges, Height Gauge and dial indicator.

iv) Angle deckor.

7. Measurement of thread parameters by using tool maker’s microscope.

8. Measurement of cylindrical bore using cylinder bore gauge for bore diameter, ovality and taper.

9. Measurement of surface roughness using surface roughness tester.

10. Measurement of a profile using profile projector.

11. Study and use of Auto-Collimator.

12. Determination of temperature of thermocouple, pyrometer, Infrared thermometer



Engineering Drawing

Mr. Sandeep Gupta 

Drawing Desk

1.Orthographic Projections

2.Drawing of plain and diagonal scales

3.To make projections, sources, Top view, Front view and Side view of various

types of Solid

4.Isometric Views

5.two sheets on AutoCAD of cube, cuboids, cone, pyramid, truncated